Meg Seymour, PhD
About 13% of men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2-3% of men will die from it.1 After lung cancer, prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in men2, and older men are more likely to get prostate cancer then younger men.1
There are known racial differences as well: Black men are 1.5 times more likely to get prostate cancer than White or Latino men, and 3 times more likely to get prostate cancer than Asians and Pacific Islanders.3,4 On average, Black men get prostate cancer a younger ages than other men, and their cancer is often more aggressive and more advanced when it is discovered.1 Black men are also more than twice as likely to die from prostate cancer than men from other races.1
This article will discuss the known racial differences in the screening, treatment, and outcomes of prostate cancer in the United States, as well as why these differences may exist. Note that many of the differences that have been studied compare Black and White men, and data about men from other races and ethnicities are more limited.
Differences in Screening
One of the main methods of screening for prostate cancer is a blood test that measures levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). PSA tests alone cannot tell if someone has cancer, but high levels of PSA might lead to further testing, like a biopsy. Another method of testing is the digital rectal exam, in which a doctor inserts a (gloved and lubricated) finger into a patient’s rectum to feel the prostate for bumps or hard areas, which might be cancer.
As of 2018, the United States Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend prostate cancer screening for men ages 70 and over.5 For men ages 55 to 69, they recommend that PSA screening should be an individual choice, based on factors such as family history or patient preference. For more information about prostate cancer screening and the recommendations for it, you can read this article.
If the results of a PSA test or digital rectal exam leads a doctor to suspect cancer, it can lead to a biopsy. A biopsy is when a small sample of tissue is removed and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.6
A 2017 article in a medical journal found that overall, non-Hispanic White men were slightly more likely to undergo PSA screening than Black men. This was a trend for the United States overall, but analysis by individual states showed that screening rates were actually higher for Black men in some states.7 More recently, a 2020 study showed that between 2014 and 2018, Black men underwent prostate cancer screening at either a slightly lower rate than White men or at the same rate.8 The study authors note that Black men need to be more intensively screened because they are more likely to get prostate cancer.
A study presented at the 2021 meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology included over 4,000 Black men ages 40-55 who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer.9 The study found that men who had an average of 3 PSA tests prior to their diagnosis were less likely to have metastatic disease than men who had an average of 0.5 PSA tests at the time of their diagnosis. Only 1.4% of the men who had been screened an average of 3 times had metastatic disease, compared with 4.2% of the men who had the least screening. Higher rates of PSA screening prior to diagnosis was also associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of dying from prostate cancer. The study suggests that more frequent PSA screening is associated with better outcomes among younger Black men.
Accuracy of screening also varied by race. A 2018 study found that although Black men were slightly more likely to have a false positive from their PSA screening, they were less likely to have a false positive from a digital rectal exam. Further, Black men were more likely than White men to have aggressive tumors and cancer that has metastasized, which means that it has spread to other body parts.10
Differences in Treatment
There are numerous treatment options for prostate cancer, such as surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and what are called watchful waiting and active surveillance. These treatment choices also vary by race.
Active surveillance means that no specific treatment like surgery or a drug is used. Instead, a doctor closely monitors the cancer to see if it grows, using regular PSA tests, digital rectal exams, and biopsies. This option may be used if a man’s cancer is small, localized, or expected to grow slowly, so that he is not immediately treated with aggressive treatments that may have side effects.11 Active surveillance is used for as many as 33% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer,12 but it is not equally used among all men in the United States. A 2020 study found that although Black and White men receive active monitoring at the same rate, Hispanic men were less likely to receive it.12 The researchers could not identify why this ethnic difference exists, but they noted that it could have to do with factors such as patient preferences or how often the option is offered by doctors.
Watchful waiting (also called observation) is slightly different from active surveillance. It involves less intensive follow-up, such as fewer tests. Instead, the patient’s doctor decides to wait and see if symptoms change. For many men, prostate cancer grows so slowly that a man might die of other causes before he would die of the cancer, so aggressive treatment is not needed. Treatments for prostate cancer can cause undesired side effects, such as incontinence and impotence, so many men may choose active surveillance or watchful waiting, if their cancer is considered low-risk enough.
Definitive therapy refers to radiation treatment or surgical removal of the prostate. Both procedures can have side effects such as erectile dysfunction and impotence.13 A 2017 study looked at over 300,000 men who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and compared which men received definitive treatments, such as surgery, to which men received no treatment, such as men undergoing active surveillance. The study found that although White and Asian men received definitive treatment at about the same rate, Hispanic and Black men were less likely to receive it than White men were.14 In the study, Black men with high risk prostate cancer were actually less likely to receive definitive therapy than White men with lower risk disease. Although Black men were likely to be on active surveillance, Black men on active surveillance are actually monitored less than White men on active surveillance. The researchers argue that Black men might be more likely than White men to benefit from definitive therapy, so they are concerned by the result that they are less likely to receive it.
A 2016 study looked at surgical treatments for localized prostate cancer in men insured by Medicare. The researchers found that, on average, Black patients experienced a longer delay between diagnosis and treatment, and had more postoperative complications than White patients.15 Research on men with metastatic prostate cancer has also found that Black men treated with the drugs docetaxel, abiraterone acetate, or enzalutamide have similar or even better outcomes to other men.16 Researchers question why Black men have overall higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than other men. For example, is the higher death rate among Black men because they often have more advanced cancer when it is discovered, because their cancer is more aggressive, or because there is unequal access to treatments?
Why Do These Differences Exist?
Some people have suggested that racial differences in prostate cancer outcomes are because White men are, on average, of higher socioeconomic status than Black men. However, research has found that comparing men of the same socioeconomic status level, cancer screening was still more common among White men and detection of cancer was also earlier for White men.17
Researchers have suggested that differences in survival by race may be because Black men are more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages of their cancer, when treatment options are more limited and can be less effective.17 They are also more likely to have comorbid illnesses, such as diabetes and hypertension, which could affect survival rates.
A 2016 study found that, among men with localized prostate cancer, when researchers adjust for differences like at what stage a man’s cancer was diagnosed and what treatment he received, survival rates are equal across all races of men.15 It is possible that the differences in cancer survival between races are due to racial differences in access to care.
There is an ongoing need for research into the causes of racial disparities in prostate cancer outcomes.
The Bottom Line
Prostate cancer is a common form of cancer in men, and although it does not always need to be actively treated, it is one of the leading cancer killers. Black men are disproportionately affected. They are often diagnosed at younger ages, with more advanced stages of cancer, with more aggressive cancers, and they may be more likely to need screening. Further research is needed to understand the causes in racial differences in prostate cancer, but at least some of the differences in rates of survival between Black and White men may be due to differences in access to medical care.
All articles are reviewed and approved by Dr. Diana Zuckerman and other senior staff.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Who Is at Risk for Prostate Cancer?. Cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/prostate/basic_info/risk_factors.htm. Updated August 2020.
- Siegel DA, O’Neil ME, Richards TB, Dowling NF, Weir HK. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Survival, by Stage and Race/Ethnicity — United States, 2001–2017. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020;69:1473–1480.
- Borno H, George DJ, Schnipper LE, Cavalli F, Cerny T, Gillessen S. All men are created equal: addressing disparities in prostate cancer care. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book. 2019 May 17;39:302-8.
- Dobbs RW, Malhotra NR, Abern MR, Moreira DM. Prostate cancer disparities in Hispanics by country of origin: a nationwide population-based analysis. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 2019 Mar;22(1):159-67.
- Fenton JJ, Weyrich MS, Durbin S, Liu Y, Bang H, Melnikow J. Prostate-specific antigen–based screening for prostate cancer: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2018 May 8;319(18):1914-31.
- American Cancer Society. Tests to Diagnose and Stage Prostate Cancer. Cancer.org. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/how-diagnosed.html. Updated December 2020.
- Jindal T, Kachroo N, Sammon J, Dalela D, Sood A, Vetterlein MW, Karabon P, Jeong W, Menon M, Trinh QD, Abdollah F. Racial differences in prostate-specific antigen–based prostate cancer screening: state-by-state and region-by-region analyses. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 2017; 35(7):460-e9.
- Kearns JT, Adeyemi O, Anderson WE, Hetherington TC, Taylor YJ, Zhu J, Burgess EF, Gaston KE. Contemporary racial disparities in PSA screening in a large, integrated health care system. 2020; 38(6): 308-308.
- Bassett M. Vaccination, Screening Succeeds in Cervical and Prostate Cancers. MedPageToday. https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/asco/92688. May 19, 2021.
- Miller EA, Pinsky PF, Black A, Andriole GL, Pierre‐Victor D. Secondary prostate cancer screening outcomes by race in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Screening Trial. The Prostate. 2018; 78(11):830-8.
- American Cancer Society. Observation or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer. Cancer.org. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/treating/watchful-waiting.html. Updated August 2019.
- Washington SL, Jeong CW, Lonergan PE, Herlemann A, Gomez SL, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR. Regional Variation in Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer in the US. JAMA Network Open. 2020; 3(12):e2031349-.
- Tracy CR. Prostate Cancer Treatment & Management. Emedicine.medscape.com,. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1967731-treatment. Updated February 2, 2021.
- Moses KA, Orom H, Brasel A, Gaddy J, Underwood III W. Racial/ethnic disparity in treatment for prostate cancer: does cancer severity matter?. Urology. 2017;99:76-83.
- Schmid M, Meyer CP, Reznor G, Choueiri TK, Hanske J, Sammon JD, Abdollah F, Chun FK, Kibel AS, Tucker-Seeley RD, Kantoff PW. Racial differences in the surgical care of Medicare beneficiaries with localized prostate cancer. JAMA Oncology. 2016;2(1):85-93.
- Hahn AW, Bilen MA, Agarwal N. Successful Recruitment of Black Men to Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials—A Lesson in Achievement. JAMA Network Open. 2021;4(1):e2034652-.)
- Di Pietro G, Chornokur G, Kumar NB, Davis C, Park JY. Racial differences in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. International Neurourology Journal. 2016;20(Suppl 2):S112.